Currently, there are many patients with thyroid problems in the world. Many of us know the name of this disease or see infected patients in the vicinity or even if we are infected, many of us do not know much about this disease. Let’s get some information about this
What is thyroid?
The thyroid is a gland located in the front of our throat. These glands secrete some essential hormones. These hormones play an important role in many other functions, including our metabolism. This gland needs the required amount of iodine to make this hormone. These hormones play an important role in our physical and mental growth, including our metabolism.\
The thyroid gland secretes two types of hormones.
In the case of babies, if these glands are not formed properly at the time of birth or if they are not able to produce the required hormones, then the physical and mental growth of the baby is hampered.
When our body produces less or more than the required amount of hormones, then various problems occur. Hypothyroidism can occur if less of this hormone is produced than is needed. Hyperthyroidism can be caused by excessive production of this hormone. Both are harmful to our health.
There may also be more different types of diseases in that gland. Let’s talk about some of the diseases that are more common
Hypothyroidism is more likely to occur if the thyroid gland produces less hormones than it needs. However, many times it does not show eye-catching symptoms, as a result of which many people do not realize that they are suffering from hypothyroidism.
However, the most common symptoms of hypothyroidism are:
Feeling tired or exhausted
Not being able to pay attention to anything.
It will soon be cold
Pain will be felt in muscles and various joints.
There will be depression
In women, excessive bleeding may occur during menstruation.
Pulse rate may be lower than normal.
In this case, the opposite of hyperthyroidism occurs. If the thyroid gland produces more hormones than it needs, it can lead to hyperthyroidism.
The thyroid gland is controlled by a gland called the pituitary gland of the brain. This part of the brain called the hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland in the brain. This hypothalamus secretes a hormone called thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). The function of this TRH hormone is to send signals to the pituitary gland to release a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This TSH hormone sends a signal to that gland to release thyroid hormone. It is understood that the thyroid gland alone is not responsible for the production of this hormone. Hormone secretion is accomplished by the combined efforts of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland.
Now if any one or more of these 3 glands work more than required then the result is more hormone production than required. And that’s when the dam problem. Which is known as hyperthyroidism.
The most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:
Can’t stand the heat
Anxiety, increased anxiety.
Increased pulse rate
Not getting enough sleep
Hair becomes thin and brittle
Thinning of the skin
In women, menstruation is irregular or very small.
In elderly patients, the heart rate may increase. If the condition is very bad and the necessary treatment for hyperthyroidism is not taken, thyroid storm can occur. This can cause the patient’s blood pressure to rise, fever to come on and the heart to stop beating.
The thyroid gland itself may become enlarged. In that case it is called goiter or goiter. Since the gland needs iodine to make hormones. Therefore, if there is a lack of iodine, the gland cannot make hormones properly. Yet it tries to make the necessary hormones for the body. As a result, it grows on its own to keep the body’s hormone levels normal. And for some as a baby gets older, he or she will outgrow this. As a result, the amount of hormones is less than required. And as a result the person develops hypothyroidism. This is why children or people who suffer from iodine deficiency are more likely to get this disease. However, the current prevalence of this disease has been greatly reduced as a result of iodine intake with salt.
There may also be tumors in this gland. Which is called nodule. In this case, the number of these tumors may be one or more. And can be of different sizes. However, tumors do not cause cancer in all cases. However, if the condition worsens and no treatment is taken, it can lead to cancer. Which is called thyroid cancer.
The following tests are usually used to diagnose various thyroid diseases:
Hormone levels can be tested through various blood tests. The following tests are usually done through blood test:
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): This test tests the level of TSH in the blood. If the level of TSH in the blood is low then it should be understood that the patient is suffering from hyperthyroidism. If more than hypothyroidism.
Thyroxine hormone (T4): The presence of high levels of T4 in the blood means hyperthyroidism and the presence of low levels of T4 means hypothyroidism.
Tri-iodothyronine hormone (T3): The presence of high levels of T3 in the blood means hyperthyroidism and the presence of low levels of T3 means hypothyroidism.
TSH receptor antibody (TSI): The presence of TSI in the blood means that the patient is infected with Graves’ disease. This disease causes swelling around the eyes.
Anti-thyroid anti-body: The presence of antithyroid antibody in the blood means that the patient is suffering from Hashimoto’s and Graves’ disease. Hashimoto’s is a disease in which the entire thyroid gland gradually becomes infected.
In addition, other tests such as nuclear thyroid scan, thyroid ultrasound, computerized axial tomography scan (Computerized axial tomography scan) can be used to diagnose various diseases of the thyroid gland.
In case of hyperthyroidism, goiter and nodules or tumors, part or all of the thyroid gland may be surgically removed depending on the extent of the disease.
However, in 80% of cases, even if the gland is cut in half, the patient can survive normally with the other half. However, those who have to have the whole gland cut off have to take the necessary hormones from outside separately for the rest of their lives.
In addition to various nuclear medicines, doctors use radioactive iodine to determine the level of infection and give the next advice.
So if you see any symptoms, do not ignore it and consult a doctor immediately. And to stay healthy, you can check the condition of thyroid gland by doing blood test at least once a year.